Source: ?v=qiQ6tCrBN84Uploader: Cátedra Alfonso Reyes. Evandro Agazzi, Javier Echeverria and Amparo Gómez (Eds.), Epistemology and Javier Echeverría, La revolución tecnocientífica, Madrid: Fondo de Cultura. Evandro Agazzi, Javier Echeverría, Amparo Gómez Rodríguez. Bijker, W.E., T.P. Huges, and T. Echeverría, J. (). La revolución tecnocientífica. Madrid.
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The emphasis that the term techno – science places on technology as well as the intensity of the connection between science and technology varies. Moreover the majority of scientists and philosophers of science continue to externalize technology as applications and consequences of scientific progress.
Revolucoin they recognize the success and efficiency of technology as promoting realism, objectivity, and universality of science.
REVOLUCION TECNOCIENTIFICA by laura contreras on Prezi
The prehistory of the concept of technoscience goes back at least to the beginning of modern science. Francis Bacon — explicitly associated knowledge and power; science provided knowledge of the effective causes of phenomena and thus the capacity for efficient intervention within them. The concept became clearer during the first half of the twentieth century. Gaston Bachelard — in Le nouvel esprit scientifique ; The new scientific spirit places the new scientific spirit under the preponderant influence of the mathematical and technical operations, and utilizes the expression science technique to designate contemporary science.
However the term techno – science itself was not coined until the s. The first important occurrence of the term appears in the title of an article titled “Ethique et techno-science” by Gilbert Hottois, first published in included in Hottois Jagier first usage expresses a critical reaction against the theoretical and discursive conception of contemporary science, and against philosophy blind to the importance of technology.
It associates technoscience with the ethical question, What are we to make of human beings? This project has become technocratic and should be denounced because of its political association with capitalism. As a promoter of the postmodern, Lyotard thus facilitates diffusion of the term within postmodern discussions.
In Science in ActionLatour utilizes the plural technosciences in order to underline his empirical and sociological approach. The technosciences refer to those sciences created by human beings in real-world socioeconomic-political contexts, by tecnocientjfica and alliances among humans and also among humans and non-humans institutions, machines, and animals among others.
Latour insists on networks and hybrid mixtures. He denounces the myth of a pure science, distinct from technologies susceptible to good and bad usages.
In reality it is less technology that Latour internalizes in the idea of science than society and therefore politicsof which technologies are part ajvier the tecnocientifjca ways as other artifacts. He rejects any philosophical idea, whether ancient or modern, of a science that is supra- or extra-social and apolitical. The worldwide successes of the technosciences are a matter of political organization and will, and do not derive from some universal recognition of a rational and objectively true knowledge that progressively imposes itself.
Latour has contributed to the success of the term technoscience in social-constructivist echevsrria since the s. The work of Donna Haraway illustrates well the diffusion of technoscience crossed with the postmodern and social-constructivist discussions in North America.
Technoscience becomes the word-symbol of the contemporary tangle of processes tecnocuentifica interactions. The basic ingredients are the sciences, technologies, and societies.
These allow the inclusion of everything: In France, in continental Europe, and in the countries of Latin Americathe use of the term technoscience has often remained closer to its original meaning that involves more ontological as with German philosopher Martin Heidegger —epistemological, and ethical questioning than social and political criticism.
A tecnnocientifica usage is not, however, rare, especially in France where there is a tendency to attribute to technoscience a host of contemporary ills such as technicism and technocracy, multinational capitalism, economic neo-liberalism, pollution, the depletion of natural resources, the climate change, globalization, planetary injustice, the disappearance of human values, and more, all related to U. The common archetype of technoscience is Big Science, originally exemplified by the Manhattan Projectwhich closely associated science, technology, and the politics of power.
In this interpretation, technoscience is presented from the point of view of domination, mastery, and control, and not from that of exploration, research, and creativity.
What distinguishes contemporary science as technoscience is that, unlike the philosophical enterprise of science identified as a fundamentally linguistic and theoretical activity, it is physically manipulative, interventionist, and creative. Determining the function of a gene whether in order to create a medicine or to participate in the sequencing of the human genome leads to technoscientific knowledge-power-doing.
In a technoscientific civilization, distinctions between theory and practice, fundamental and applied, become blurred. Philosophers are invited to define human death or birth, taking into account the consequences of these definitions in the practical-ethical plans, that is to say, in regard to what will or will not be permitted for example, the harvesting of organs or embryonic experimentation. Another example is familiar to bioethicists. Since the s there has existed a line of transgenic mice Onco mice used as a model for research on the genesis of certain cancers.
Here is an object at once natural and artificial, theoretical and practical, abstract and concrete, living and yet patented like an invention.
Their existence and use in research further involves many different cognitive and practical scientific questions and interests: It is even a political issue, because transgenic mice are at the center of a conflict between the European Union and the United Tecnocientiica over the patentability of living organisms.
The most radical questions raised by technosciences concern their application to the natural as a living organisms formed by the evolutionary process and manipulated as a contingent creation of human culture. Such questions acquire their greatest importance when one takes into account the past and future unknowable immensity of biological, geological, and cosmological jacier, in asking, for example: What will become of the human being in a million years?
From this perspective the scheverria of human beings appears open not only to symbolic invention definitions, images, interpretations, valuesbut also to techno-physical invention experimentation, mutations, prosthetics, cyborgs.
A related examination places the technosciences themselves within the scope of an evolution that is more and more affected by conscious human intervention. Both approaches raise questions and responsibilities that are not foreign to ethics and politics but that invite us at the same time to consider with a critical eye all specific ethics and javied because the issues exceed all conceivable societal projects.
Entre symboles et tecnocientiflca [Between symbols and technosciences].
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